Frequently Asked Questions

Digital twin refers to a digital replica of a physical asset. (Digital twins are) living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change. A digital twin continuously learns and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its (physical counterparts) near real-time status, working condition or position. In various industrial sectors, twins are being used to optimize the operation and maintenance of physical assets, systems and manufacturing processes.

P-CAM stands for Performance-Centered Asset Management.

The P-CAM training is designed to create value by engaging people with ready to use tools and concepts, but most importantly a global understanding of physical asset management. So, the participants can target the vulnerabilities to invest the effort where it matters the most, preventing bad surprises and maximizing profit.

Our sessions put the participants into real-world asset management scenarios to boost their confidence in their abilities and to turn their new knowledge into skills they can apply.

At Percentam we are dedicated to transformative learning. This means we have adopted methods of pedagogy that help participants assimilate the teachings for longterm retention. We use a combination of approaches including Constructivism, meaning we have found people learn through experience and reflection. This is why our sessions are dynamic and interactive. We do lecture and expect participants to take notes, but we have a focus on group problem solving and presentations as well.

We know that people’s attention span is also a large factor in their ability to receive and retain knowledge. This is why we always have our finger on the pulse of the group sensing when a micro break is needed. We take a solid one hour break for lunch giving participants time to decompress. When we restart the session after lunch we use some physical moving around to keep participants at the top of their game.

These sessions not only train participants on Asset Management, but will leave them inspired to become the leading practitioners in the field.

Sessions 1-5 taken individually are two days each. When sessions 1-5 (or the equivalent there of) are completed, participants are eligible to our Asset Management-Leader certification (CAM-L). The AM Intensive is a combination of sessions 1, 2 and 3 consolidating six days into five.

If you are looking to take the minimum amount of sessions yet want a comprehensive foundation, we recommend taking sessions 1-3 which give the foundational processes and skills for asset management.

We look forward to joining you in the classroom to optimize your business operations, through our proven asset management strategies adapted to your reality.

The P-CAM process uses a holistic approach based on Adaptability, Ease of use and Efficiency.

The P-CAM Training is complete.

Asset management starts with knowledge about the assets, not only of their purposes, but especially of their associated hazards and vulnerabilities.

Now, which asset to begin with? Too often, we tend to focus on the production lines, while other systems might put the company at greater risk.

    • For example, in the hydro power production, one can focus on the generators, concern by the operational consequences, while a dam breakage would put the population at risk.
    • A less catastrophic example in the manufacturing process, one tends to focus on the machining centers, while the main chip conveyor failure would stop the whole factory.
    • What about the main power supply, have you ever lost it?

In general, common ancillary equipment represents greater vulnerabilities to the company than the main production assets, on which one tends to focus the efforts.

So in order to properly assess the company’s vulnerabilities, all of its assets must be analyzed and classified accordingly. To accomplish this in full detail for each asset would require an unreasonable amount of effort.

Using the P-CAM process tools, it is possible to classify more than 600 assets (an entire factory or a complete site) in a 2 day’s workshop, with the right team and a proper common understanding of the basic concepts. Then, start working where it matters the most.

Another advantage of the P-CAM Process is the process itself and its retroactive characteristics. Too often the analyses do not get to be reviewed. They die on the shelf, with people too busy by their everyday routines to update them.

The P-CAM process is part of everyday life. It takes root in routines and its concepts are integrated into the tools.

The P-CAM Training influences the culture of the company, pulling everyone on-board.

With the following assets, to which the process applies perfectly;

Civil assets and infrastructures: Water systems – Industrial buildings – Bridges – Roads – Rock walls – Concrete dams – Embankment dam – Spillway or regulating works – Aqueducts – Penstocks – Hydraulic passages – Guard valves – Water intake valves – Hydrometeorological stations

Real estate assets and buildings: Building and structure – Water supply, collection and treatment systems – Heating, ventilation, air conditioning and treatment systems – Fire protection system – Power supply and emergency generators – Compressed air system – Hoists and elevators

Industrial assets: Power generators – Power transformers – Industrial control, measurement and protection systems – High pressure compressed air systems – Uninterruptible power supply systems – Overhead traveling cranes – Gantry cranes – Lifting systems – Hydraulic and oleopneumatic systems – Pumping stations – Collection systems – Dust collectors

Manufacturing assets: Robotic CNC machining cells – Conventional machining – Routers – Folders – Hydraulic presses – Coordinate measuring machine – Ovens

Mining and primary metal assets: Mining trucks – Conveyors – Shredders – Hoppers – Electrometallurgical tanks – Blast furnaces – Rotary ovens – Anode ovens – Pockets for liquid metal transport – Rams for liquid metal transporters – Service machines

Offshore and maritime assets: Oil tankers – Military ships – Propulsion system – Power supply – Ancillary Equipment

In fact, the analysis process involves all the physical assets supporting the success of your organization!

Human-made systems for which a catastrophic failure would have a adverse impact on the surrounding population.
– anonymous source

Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment.

It is also referred to as a condition resulting from physical, social, economic or environmental factors, which predisposes the elements exposed to the manifestation of a danger to be harmed or damaged.

– Wikipedia and anonymous source

In a general sense, resilience pertains to the capability of an engineered system to anticipate, survive, and recover from being stressed by a threat situation.
 – William Scott Jackson

Reliability-Centered Maintenance is an analysis concept aimed at optimizing assets management strategies. The objective is to maximize the value released while ensuring dependability in the performance of the functions for which they were designed. Successfully implemented, RCM will lead to increased profitability, reliability, machine availability and a better understanding of the level of risk the organization is managing.

– anonymous source

Total Productive Maintenance is a concept for maintaining and improving the integrity of production, safety and quality systems through machines, equipment, processes and people who add business value to an organization. TPM aims to eliminate all forms of ineffectiveness and to re-empower all staff in achieving the organization’s objectives.

– anonymous source

It is a maintenance carried out intended to assess and/or to mitigate degradation and reduce the probability of failure of an item.


Preventive maintenance (PM) is used to “notice small problems and fix them before major ones develop.”

Main objective of PM are :

    • Enhance capital equipment productive life.
    • Reduce critical equipment breakdown.
    • Minimize production loss due to equipment failures.

– Wikipedia

It is a condition-based maintenance carried out following a forecast derived from repeated analysis or known characteristics and evaluation of the significant parameters of the degradation of the item


Predictive maintenance techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to estimate when maintenance should be performed. This approach promises cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted. Thus, it is regarded as condition-based maintenance carried out as suggested by estimations of the degradation state of an item.

 – Wikipedia

Digital twin refers to a digital replica of a physical asset. Digital twins are living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change. A digital twin continuously learns and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its physical counterparts near real-time status, working condition or position. In various industrial sectors, twins are being used to optimize the operation and maintenance of physical assets, systems and manufacturing processes.

 – Wikipedia